Neo-Luddism is a philosophy opposing many forms of modern technology. The name is based on the historical legacy of the British Luddites, who were active between 1811 and 1816.

Neo-Luddism is movement of which resist modern technologies and dictate a return of some or all technologies to a more primitive level. Neo-Luddites are characterized by one or more of the following practices: passively abandoning the use of technology, harming those who produce technology, advocating simple living, or sabotaging technology.

The most extreme neo-Luddites reject all technology after the invention of the microchip, or any technology containing microchips. In some cases neo-Luddites use technology which contains microchips if the functional use of the technology is able to exist without microchips as well, like spaceflight, since spaceflight (Sputnik) was made possible before the invention of the microchip. While this branch of the philosophy adds a lot of ambiguity to the neo-Luddism movement, it makes the movement more accessible as well.

The motivation for abandoning technology using microchips is often being cited that the use of microchips adds a level of complexity and abstraction to technology, making it so that its function and its workings cannot be reasonably understood and thus, according to the neo-Luddites, this kind of technology cannot be properly controlled by humanity. Some neo-Luddites believe that this kind of complex technology is in fact controlling humanity instead of the other way around.

Neo-Luddism in a broad sense is based on the concern of the technological impact on individuals, their communities and/or the environment. Neo-Luddism stipulates the use of the precautionary principle for all new technologies, insisting that technologies be proven safe before adoption, due to the unknown effects that new technologies might inspire. Many neo-Luddites have strong connections with radical environmentalist organizations.